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Basic Facts
PovertyAvailable Social Services

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Basic Facts
1.
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Service1: More Info
Individuals, families and groups in the population can be said to be in poverty when they lack the resources to obtain the types of diet, participate in the activities, and have the living conditions and amenities which are customary, or are at least widely encouraged and approved, in the societies in which they belong. (contributed by City Action Link)
2.
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Service2: global More Info
Empowerment is the process of increasing the capacity of individuals or groups to make effective choices and to transform those choices into desired actions and outcomes. Central to this process are actions which both build the individual and collective assets of the poor, and improve the efficiency and fairness of the organizational and institutional context which govern the use of these assets. (contributed by mk)
3.
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Service3: global More Info
How can the poor, so removed from the powerful, influence national policy? (contributed by mk)
4.
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Service4: global More Info
There are thousands of examples of empowerment strategies that have been initiated by poor people themselves and by governments, civil society, and the private sector. Although there is no single institutional model for empowerment, experience shows that certain elements are almost always present when empowerment efforts are successful. These four key elements are: (contributed by mk)
5.
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Service5: global More Info
The Comprehensive Development Framework is an approach by which countries can achieve more effective poverty reduction. It emphasizes the interdependence of all elements of development - social, structural, human, governance, environmental, economic, and financial. It advocates: (contributed by ek)
6.
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Service6: global More Info
While the term CDF can be viewed as "new", the principles which make it up can be seen as a natural evolution of the development community's role and broader development thinking. (contributed by ek)
7.
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Service7: global More Info
The CDF approach emphasizes the importance of four key interrelated principles in the development process:
- A long-term holistic vision and strategy;
- Enhanced country ownership of the development strategy;
- Partnership among stakeholders; and
- Greater and more transparent focus on development
results.
This section provides an overview of Latin American countries in terms of these principles.
(contributed by mk)
8.
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Service8: global More Info
The International Development Goals set targets for reductions in poverty, improvements in health and education, and protection of the environment. They distill the experience of many years, expressed in the resolutions of major United Nations conferences. The goals have been adopted by the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the members of the Development Assistance Committee of the OECD, and many other agencies. They found a new expression in the Millennium Declaration of the United Nations, adopted by the General Assembly in September 2000. (contributed by ek)
9.
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Service9: global More Info
Empowerment is the process of increasing the capacity of individuals or groups to make effective choices and to transform those choices into desired actions and outcomes. Central to this process are actions which both build the individual and collective assets of the poor, and improve the efficiency and fairness of the organizational and institutional context which govern the use of these assets. (contributed by mk)
10.
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Service10: global More Info
How can the poor, so removed from the powerful, influence national policy? (contributed by mk)
11.
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Service11: global More Info
There are thousands of examples of empowerment strategies that have been initiated by poor people themselves and by governments, civil society, and the private sector. Although there is no single institutional model for empowerment, experience shows that certain elements are almost always present when empowerment efforts are successful. These four key elements are: (contributed by mk)
12.
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Service12: global More Info
PPA is a method to include poor people in the analysis of poverty with the objective of influencing policy. The findings are transmitted to policymakers, thereby enabling the poor to influence public policy choices. PPAs have three key elements: (contributed by mk)
13.
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Service13: global More Info
Average incomes of the poorest fifth of society rise proportionately with average incomes. This is a consequence of the strong empirical regularity that the share of income accruing to the bottom quintile does not vary systematically with average income. (contributed by mk)
14.
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Service14: global More Info
Average incomes of the poorest fifth of society rise proportionately with average incomes. This is a consequence of the strong empirical regularity that the share of income accruing to the bottom quintile does not vary systematically with average income. (contributed by mk)
15.
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Service15: global More Info
Economic growth is considered as a potential strategy for reducing poverty.The question was whether income expansion accrued as much to the poor as the rest of society or whether it left the poor behind. (contributed by mk)
16.
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The report examines the public policies of 8 high-performing Asian economies (HPAEs) from 1965 to 1990. It seeks to uncover the role those policies played in the dramatic economic growth, improved human welfare, and more equitable income distribution in Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, Taiwan (China), and Thailand. (contributed by mk)
17.
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Explaining cross-country differences in growth rates requires not only an understanding of the link between growth and public policies, but also an understanding of why countries choose different public policies. (contributed by mk)
18.
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Service18: global More Info
The total output of an economy is a function of its resource endowments (labor, physical capital, human capital) and the productivity with which these endowments are deployed to produce a flow of goods and services (GDP). We can express this relationship in the form of an economy-wide production function, with a representing total factor productivity. Note that a captures not only the technical efficiency level of the economy, but also the allocative efficiency with which resource endowments are distributed across economic activities. The growth of per-capita output can in turn be expressed in terms of three proximate determinants: (a) physical capital deepening; (b) human capital accumulation; and (c) productivity growth. (contributed by mk)
19.
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Service19: global More Info
About 1 billion people - one fifth of the world's population - live on less than $1 a day. Poverty incidence has decreased from 29 percent of global population in 1990 to 18 percent in 2004. (contributed by mk)
20.
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Service20: global More Info
Davoudi and Evans include social capital as a second dimension of institutional capacity. In Healey et al.'s framework this is termed 'relational resources', the term 'social capital' having been dismissed. . (contributed by mk)
21.
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Service21: global More Info
The social capital concept appears to have considerable potential for analysing situations of fragmented institutions for local resource management. However its main strength -- the distinctive focus on relationships of trust, mutuality and reciprocity - may also turn out to be a weakness. Are there other key factors that should be incorporated into a research framework? With this question in mind the institutional capacity concept is also worthy of discussion. While the social capital literature can be considered as highly focused and based on a tight causal mechanism (particularly in Ostrom's work), the institutional capacity literature is much more broadly drawn; variants are used to analyse both economic and policy processes. (contributed by mk)
22.
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Service22: global More Info
(contributed by mk)
23.
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Service23: global More Info
PPAs are deepening our understanding of poverty by enabling the poor to highlight dimensions of poverty, explain the processes of impoverishment, and rank their priorities. The policy dialogue has been dominated by income and consumption measures and health and education status derived from traditional household surveys. PPAs are adding to this analysis by providing other insights on the nature of poverty from the point of view of the poor. (contributed by mk)
24.
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Service24: global More Info
Evaluating the extent to which PPAs have influenced policy involves consideration of two main issues: first, Has policy changed? Second, Have policymakers shifted their focus toward a more pro-poor approach? Although causality is usually difficult to establish, there are many examples of how PPAs have influenced policy at the country level and within the Bank, such as the following: (contributed by mk)
25.
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Service25: global More Info
Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) evolved from a series of qualitative multidisciplinary approaches to learning about local-level conditions and local peoples' perspectives, including Rapid Rural Appraisal and Agroecosystem Analysi. The pioneers of PRA development have been NGOs and agricultural research organizations, and in recent years the World Bank and other donors have begun to adopt PRA-type methods in their work. (contributed by mk)
26.
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Service26: global More Info
PPA is a method to include poor people in the analysis of poverty with the objective of influencing policy. The findings are transmitted to policymakers, thereby enabling the poor to influence public policy choices. PPAs have three key elements: (contributed by mk)
27.
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Service27: global More Info
Poverty is pain; it feels like a disease. It attacks a person not only materially but also morally. It eats away one's dignity and drives one into total despair. ?Ea poor woman in Moldova (contributed by ek)
28.
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Service28: global More Info
Achieving the international development goals will not be easy. Developing countries will have to reshape their economies and, in many cases, reform their public sectors. They will have to expand their educational and health care systems. And they will have to devote additional resources to providing basic services such as safe water and sanitation. There is much that the wealthiest nations can and should do to help them. (contributed by ek)
29.
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Service29: global More Info
PPAs are deepening our understanding of poverty by enabling the poor to highlight dimensions of poverty, explain the processes of impoverishment, and rank their priorities. The policy dialogue has been dominated by income and consumption measures and health and education status derived from traditional household surveys. PPAs are adding to this analysis by providing other insights on the nature of poverty from the point of view of the poor. (contributed by mk)
30.
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Service30: global More Info
Here, too, our knowledge is limited. Nevertheless, both cross-country analyses and case studies have generated insights into the link between inequality and several policy and institutional factors. (contributed by mk)
31.
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Service31: global More Info
Few doubt that investment in physical and human capital, financed primarily by doestic savings, is crucial to the process of economic development. We are therefore not surprised to see the strong cross-country associations between rapid per capita income growth and high rates of fixed investment and school enrollment. The importance of domestic savings follows from the well-known strong cross-country correlation between the savings and investment shares of GDP (Feldstein and Horioka 1980) (contributed by mk)
32.
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There is no intrinsic tradeoff between long-run aggregate economic growth and overall equity. Policies aimed at helping the poor accumulate productive assets --- especially policies to improve schooling, health, and nutrition --- when adopted in a relatively nondistorted framework, are important instruments for achieving higher growth. (contributed by mk)
33.
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Service33: global More Info
In the 1940's Roy Harrod (1948) and Evsey Domar (1946) separately developed a macro-dynamic model through an extension of Keyns's theory. The model's original intent was to identify the source of instability in the growth of developed economies where effective denand is normally exceeded by supply capacity. In the 1950's and 1960's this model was applied to economic planning in developed economies. (contributed by mk)
34.
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Service34: global More Info
Nobel laureate Robert Solow published his theory of growth in a couple of articles in 1956 and 1957. His conclusion surprised many, and still surprises many today: investment in machinary cannot be a source of growth in the long run. Solow argued that the only possible source of growth in the long run is technological change.Slow in the 1957 article calculated that technological change accounted for seventh-eighths of US growth per worker over the first half of the twenties century. (contributed by mk)
35.
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Service35: global More Info
The idea that aid-financed investment in dams, roads, and machines would yied growth goes back a long way. In April 1946, economics professor Evsey Domar published an article on economic growth, "Capital Expansion, Rate of Growth, and Employment," which discuss the relationship between short-term recessionns and investment in the United States. (contributed by mk)
36.
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Service36: global More Info
High positive coleration between the growth rates of per capita GNP and per capita investment (see Statistics). Indeed their corelation coefficient is as high as 0.9. (contributed by mk)
37.
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Service37: global More Info
The distinction between bonding and bridging capital is now accepted as a key element of social capital theory. The two different types of social capital are seen as performing very different kinds of function (Brown and Ashman 1996). (contributed by motoo8)
38.
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Service38: global More Info
In September 1999, the World Bank and the IMF agreed to major changes in their operations to help low-income countries achieve sustainable poverty reduction. Henceforth, programs supported by the two institutions will be based on government-driven poverty reduction strategies (PRSs) developed in consultation with civil society and elaborated in Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs). The PRSPs also provide the basis for debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative, as well as for all World Bank concessional lending. There are four key features of the PRSs for which PPAs can be useful. (contributed by mk)
39.
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Service39: global More Info
Since the joint Review, the number of full PRSPs has doubled, to 18, and many other countries have made substantial advances in the design and implementation of their poverty reduction strategies. This recent experience confirms that the PRSP approach remains on track. The quality and commitment that characterize several of the recent PRSPs and the momentum show the dynamism and relevance of the PRSP approach at the country level.

But recent experience also shows that substantial challenges remain which countries and their development partners will need to address over time, including:t (contributed by mk)

40.
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Service40: global More Info
In September 1999, the World Bank Group and the IMF determined that nationally-owned participatory poverty reduction strategies should provide the basis of all their concessional lending and for debt relief under the enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative. This approach, building on the principles of the Comprehensive Development Framework, has led to the development of Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) by country authorities for submission to the Bank and Fund Boards. (contributed by ek)
41.
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Service41: global More Info
Below you will find excerpts from Voices of Poor. Listen to the poor as they speak about their lives, and what it means to be poor. The excerpts are organized around the major conclusions of the study: (contributed by ek)
42.
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Service42: global More Info
The rich countries provide aid and help to create an environment in which developing countries have the greatest chance of success. They can do this in the following areas: (contributed by ek)
43.
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Service43: global More Info
Lundberg and Squire (1999) demonstrated the importance of examining the impact of policy on both growth and inequality. They estimated separate "standard" growth and inequility equations based on the existing literature. (contributed by mk)
44.
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Service44: global More Info
Evaluating the extent to which PPAs have influenced policy involves consideration of two main issues: first, Has policy changed? Second, Have policymakers shifted their focus toward a more pro-poor approach? Although causality is usually difficult to establish, there are many examples of how PPAs have influenced policy at the country level and within the Bank, such as the following: (contributed by mk)
45.
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Service45: global More Info
Growth accounting assumes an aggregate production function relating an economy's output to the inputs of labor and capital. Using this production function, contribution of increase inputs tooutput growth are measured, and any residual not explained by input increases is considered a measure of growtth in the productivity of factor inputs. This residual, called growth in 'total factor productivity' (abbreviated as TFP), is a measure of technological progress broadly defined as output growth when input are being held constant. (contributed by mk)
46.
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The second link in the financial gap approach is the link from investment to growth. Does investment have a quick growth payoff, as the financial gap model assumed? (contributed by mk)
47.
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Service47: global More Info
The strong relationship between fixed capital formation share of GDP and growth rates since World War II has led many writers, such as De Long and Summers [1991, 1992], to conclude that the rate of capital formation in the form of equipment, determines the rate of a country's economic growth. (contributed by mk)
48.
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Service48: global More Info
When we financing gap user calculatedaid requirements as the excess of "required" investment over actual saving, our presumption was that aid would go one for one into investment. Moreover, aid givers talked about conditions that would require countries to increase their rate of national saving at the same time, which some like Rostow thought would even happen naturally. So aid conbined with savings conditions should increase investment by even more than one for one. Let's see what actually happened. (contributed by mk)
49.
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PERs analyze the expenditures and revenues of the broad public sector. Although not required by current operational policy as a prerequisite of adjustment lending, this analysis is crucial to help evaluate the quality of government spending and spending policies in promoting economic growth and reducing poverty. (contributed by ek)
50.
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Service50: global More Info
The CFAA is a diagnostic tool designed to enhance the Bankfs knowledge of financial accountability arrangements in the public and private sectors in client countries. It supports the exercise of the Bankfs fiduciary responsibilities by identifying the strengths and weaknesses of accountability arrangements in the public sector and the risks that these may pose to the use of Bank funds. (contributed by ek)
51.
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Service51: global More Info
The CPAR has also evolved since its introduction in the mid-1980s. It was originally designed as an internal tool for Bank staff to identify unacceptable national procurement practices that could not be used with Bank-financed projects. The revised CPAR introduced in 1998 serves as a tool to assess the health of a country?fs procurement system and to initiate a dialogue with the government on actions to improve the system. (contributed by ek)
52.
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Service52: global More Info
The Poverty Reduction Support Credit (PRSC) is a quick-disbursing lending instrument available to eligible IDA borrowers. Along with investment lending and other adjustment credits -and nonlending services - and as set out in the CAS, the PRSC provides support for the implementation of the country's poverty reduction strategy and the associated program of social/structural, institutional, and policy reforms. The attached Interim Guidelines set out the key features and prerequisites of PRSCs. They will be kept under review and updated as necessary in light of the emerging experience with PRSCs - of which three have been approved to date, for Uganda, Vietnam, and Burkina Faso. (contributed by ek)
53.
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Service53: global More Info
Poverty is pain; it feels like a disease. It attacks a person not only materially but also morally. It eats away one's dignity and drives one into total despair. ?Ea poor woman in Moldova (contributed by mk)
54.
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Service54: global More Info
The purpose of this study was to produce estimates of the effects of major kinds of physical infrastructure on GDP per capita growth and multifactor productivity. The study modeled five kinds of infrastructure separately, in a standard growth framework with total capital, human capital, and geographic variables as additional candidates for explaining growth. The estimates were produced in a full panel (152 countries) of annual data (1950?E5) and with a new multicountry database of infrastructure stocks. (contributed by mk)
55.
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Service55: global More Info
Below you will find excerpts from Voices of Poor. Listen to the poor as they speak about their lives, and what it means to be poor. The excerpts are organized around the major conclusions of the study: (contributed by mk)
56.
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Service56: global More Info
Poverty and social impact analysis(PSIA) is an analysis of the distributional impact of policy reforms on the well-being or welfare of different stakeholder groups, with particular focus on the poor and vulnerable 3. In so doing, it also addresses issues of sustainability and risks to policy reform that come with social impacts of policy changes. (contributed by ek)

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